Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 3005 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/09/11 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Metamorphosis in Telecom Industry Abstract: Today, Telecommunications is one of the fastest-growing areas of technology in the world. Because of its rapid growth, businesses and individuals can access information at electronic speed from almost anywhere in the world. By including telecommunications in their operations, businesses can provide better services and products to their customers. For individuals, telecommunications provides access to worldwide information and services. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s telephone network is one of the largest communication networks in the world which continues to grow at blistering pace. The Indian Telecommunications network with 621 million connections (as on March 2010) is the third largest network after China USA and the fastest growing market with a growth rate of 45% in the world and the second largest among the emerging economies of Asia. The telecommunication sector continued to register significant success during the past few years and has emerged as one of the key sectors responsible for IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s resurgent and its economic growth. This rapid growth has been possible due to various proactive and positive decisions of the Government and contribution of both by the public and the private sector. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Metamorphosis in Indian Telecom Industry" essay for you Create order The rapid strides in the telecom sector have been facilitated by liberal policies of the Government that provide easy market access for telecom equipment and a fair regulatory framework for offering telecom services to the Indian consumers at affordable prices. Indian telecommunication sector has undergone a major process of transformation through significant policy reforms, particularly beginning with the announcement of National Telecom Policy (NTP) 1994 and was subsequently re-emphasized and carried forward under NTP 1999. Driven by various policy initiatives, the Indian telecom sector witnessed a complete transformation in the last decade. It has achieved a phenomenal growth during the last few years and is poised to take a big leap in the future also. Presently, all the telecom services have been opened for private participation. Keywords: Telecommunication, Consumers, Teledensity, 3G Services, Technology In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s information age, the telecommunication industry has a vital role to play. Considered as the backbone of industrial and economic development, the industry has been aiding delivery of voice and data services at rapidly increasing speeds, and thus, has been revolutionising human communication. The development of the telecom sector has experienced a major process of transformation in terms of its growth, technological content, and market structure in the last decade through policy reforms introduced by the Government. The impetus of these changes is expected to continue, and at a much faster pace. INTRODUCTION EVOLUTION Indian telecom sector is more than 165 years old. Telecommunications was first introduced in India in 1851 when the first operational landlines were laid by the government near Kolkata (then Calcutta), although telephone services were formally introduced in India much later in 1881. Further, in 1883, telephone services were merged with the postal system. In 1947, after India attained independence, all foreign telecommunication companies were nationalised to form the Posts, Telephone and Telegraph (PTT), a body that was governed by the Ministry of Communication. The first wind of reforms in telecommunications sector began to flow in 1980s when the private sector was allowed in telecommunications equipment manufacturing. The government concretised its earlier efforts towards developing RD in the sector by setting up an autonomous body Ã¢â¬â Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) in 1984 to develop state-of-the-art telecommunication technology to meet the growing needs of the Indian telecommunication network. In 1985, Department of Telecommunications (DoT) was established. It was an exclusive provider of domestic and long-distance service that would be its own regulator (separate from the postal system). In 1986, two wholly government-owned companies were created: the Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) for international telecommunications and Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) for service in metropolitan areas. The actual evolution of the industry started after the Government separated the Department of Post nd Telegraph in 1985 by setting up the Department of Posts and the Department of Telecommunications (DoT). The entire evolution of the telecom industry can be classified into three distinct phases. * Phase I- Pre-Liberalisation Era (1980-89) * Phase II- Post Liberalisation Era (1990-99) * Phase III- Post 2000 Until the late 90s the Government of India held a monopoly on all types of communications Ã¢â¬â as a result of the Telegraph Act of 1885. Until the industry was liberalised in the early nineties, it was a heavily government-controlled and small-sized market, Government policies have played a key role in shaping the structure and size of the Telecom industry in India. As a result, the Indian telecom market is one of the most liberalised markets in the world with private participation in almost all of its segments. The New Telecom Policy (NTP-99) provided the much needed impetus to the growth of this industry and set the trend for liberalisation in the industry. NATIONAL TELECOM POLICY 1994 In 1994, the Government announced the National Telecom Policy which defined certain important objectives, including availability of telephone on demand, provision of world class services at reasonable prices, improving IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s competitiveness in global market and promoting exports, attractive FDI and stimulating domestic investment, ensuring IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s emergence as major manufacturing / export base of telecom equipment and universal availability of basic telecom services to all villages. It also announced a series of specific targets to be achieved by 1997. NEW TELECOM POLICY 1999 The most important milestone and instrument of telecom reforms in IndiaÃ isÃ the New Telecom Policy 1999 (NTP 99). The New Telecom Policy, 1999 (NTP-99) was approved on 26th March 1999, to become effective from 1st April 1999. NTP-99 laid down a clear roadmap for future reforms, contemplating the opening up of all the segments of the telecom sector for private sector participation. It clearly recognized the need for strengthening the regulatory regime as well as restructuring the departmental telecom services to that of a public sector corporation so as to separate the licensing and policy functions of the Government from that of being an operator. It also recognized the need for resolving the prevailing problems faced by the operators so as to restore their confidence and improve the investment climate. Key features of the NTP 99 include: * Strengthening of Regulator. National long distance services opened to private operators. * International Long Distance Services opened to private sectors. * Private telecom operators licensed on a revenue sharing basis, plus a one-time entry fee. Resolution of problems of existing operators envisaged. * Direct interconnectivity and sharing of network with other telecom operators within the service area was permitted. * Department of Telecommunication Services (DTS) corporatized in 2000. * Spectrum Management made transparen t and more efficient. All the commitments made under NTP 99Ã have been fulfilled; each one of them, in letter and spirit, some even ahead of schedule, and the reform process is now complete with all the sectors in telecommunications opened for private competition. CURRENT STATUS Globalisation has made telecommunication an integral part of the infrastructure of the Indian economy. The telecom sector in India has developed as a result of progressive regulatory regime. The Indian telecom market has been displaying sustained high growth rates. Riding on expectations of overall high economic growth and consequent rising income levels, it offers an unprecedented opportunity for foreign investment. A combination of factors is driving growth in the telecom market, promising rich returns on investments. It has also experienced a rapid growth over the past decade on account of regulatory liberalisation, structural reforms and competition, making telecom one of the major catalysts in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s growth story. However, much of this growth can be attributed to the unprecedented growth in mobile telephony as the number of mobile subscribers grew at an astounding rate. The year 2009, saw the Indian telecom sector add 170 million phone connections to take the total subscriber base to 550 million. T R Dua, Deputy Director General of Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI), said, Ã¢â¬Å"It is indeed a matter of great satisfaction that the Indian telecom industry continued to grow even when most other sectors grappled with a demand slowdown. Ã¢â¬ Studies have shown that in India, the telecom sector has been a major enabler of economic growth. An Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER) study has shown that states with higher mobile penetration are forecast to grow faster. At present, the Indian telecom market is the fastest growing in the world with the lowest tariffs and currently market leaders in the Indian telecom sector are launching plans to compete with new operators. The year 2009 saw telecom players shift from per minute billing to per second billing. The Indian telecom industry is characterised with intense competition, and continuous price wars. Currently, there are around a dozen telecom service providers who operate in the wired and wireless segment. The government has been periodically implementing suitable fiscal and promotional policies to boost domestic demand and to create volumes for the industry. The Indian telecom market size of over US $ 8 billion is expected to increase three fold by 2012. The Indian telecom industry has immense growth potential as the teledensity in the country is just 36 as compared with 60 in the US, 102 in the UK and 58 in Canada. The wireless segment growth has played a dominant role in taking the teledensity to the current levels. In the next few years, the industry is poised to grow further; in fact, it has already entered a consolidation phase as foreign players are struggling to acquire a pie in this dynamic industry. The Indian Telecom Analysis (2008-2012) report by RNCOS Industry Research Solutions shows that mobile telecom segment has surpassed all other segments in the Indian telecom sector. (The mobile telecom market is forecast to grow at a compound annual growth rate of around 15 per cent between 2009-10 and 2013-14. The report also indicates that the advance of services such as Internet Protocol television (IPTV) and 3G are fuelling the growth of the Indian telecom sector. Meanwhile, Bangladeshs telecom regulator granted approval to Indian telecom operator, Bharti AirtelÃ¢â¬â¢s US$ 300 million proposed investment for a 70 per cent stake in the Abu Dhabi Groups Warid Telecom of Bangladesh. This a pproval makes the company the first Indian operator from the Indian telecom sector to foray into Bangladeshs mobile market. Indian telecom companies are following the trend of global telecom companies such as France Telecom, AT;T and Vodafone to capitalise on the excitement in the mobile applications spaceÃ¢â¬âmobile service provider Aircel has partnered Infosys Technologies to launch the first mobile application in the Indian telecom sector. Also, Airtel is considering partnering software company IBM to launch app stores in 2010. This signals the increasing recognition among operators in the Indian telecom sector that the way ahead for mobile technology lies with independent developers. In another development in the Indian telecom sector, Tata Teleservices Ltd (TTSL) has partnered Novatium Solutions Ltd to launch what is said to be the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s first cloud computing service over wireless broadband, Ã¢â¬ËNova Navigator. The Navigator is being described as a Ã¢â¬Ëzero maintenance access device with features such as 3G support and plug and play printer support and multimedia support. In a development that will provide fundamental benefits to services offered by the Indian telecom sector, Tata Communications and China Telecom Corp are to jointly build a 500-km optical fibre cable network between the two countries in 2010. Along with the investments of Tata Communications in other subsea cable investments, the India-China Terrestrial Cable will provide high-speed connectivity between Asia and Europe. FUTURE GROWTH PROSPECTUS OF TELECOM SECTOR IN INDIA Both fixed line and mobile segments serve the basic needs of local calls, long distance calls and the international calls, with the provision of broadband services in the fixed line segment and GPRS in the mobile arena. Traditional telephones have been replaced by the codeless and the wireless instruments. Mobile phone providers have also come up with GPRS-enabled multimedia messaging, Internet surfing, and mobile-commerce. The much-awaited 3G mobile technology is soon going to transform the Indian telecom market. The GSM, CDMA, WLL service providers are all upgrading them to provide 3G mobile services. Along with improvement in telecom services, there is also an improvement in manufacturing. In the beginning, there were only the Siemens handsets in India but now a whole series of new handsets, such as Nokias latest N-series, Sony Ericssons W-series, Motorolas PDA phones, etc. ave come up. Touch screen and advanced technological handsets are gaining popularity. Radio services have also been incorporated in the mobile handsets, along with other applications like high storage memory, multimedia applications, multimedia games, MP3 Players, video generators, Cameras, etc. The value added services provided by the mobile service operators contribute more than 10% of the total revenue. FACTOR S FACILITATING GROWTH OF THE SECTOR The phenomenal growth in the Indian telecom industry was brought about by the wireless revolution that began in the nineties. Besides this, the following factors also aided the growth of the industry. Liberalisation The relaxation of telecom regulations has played a major role in the development of the Indian telecom industry. The liberalisation policies of 1991 and the consequent influx of private players have led the industry on a high growth trajectory and have increased the level of competition. Post-liberalisation, the telecom industry has received more investments and has implemented higher technology. Increasing Affordability of Handsets The phenomenal growth in the Indian telecom industry was predominantly aided by the meteoric rise in wireless subscribers, which encouraged mobile handset manufacturers to enter the market and to cater to the growing demand. Further, the manufacturers introduced lower-priced handsets with add-on facilities to cater to the increasing number of subscribers from different strata of the society. Now even entry-level handsets come with features like coloured display and FM radio. Thus, the falling handset prices and the add-on features have triggered growth of the Indian telecom industry. Prepaid Cards Bring in More Subscribers In the late nineties, India was introduced to prepaid cards, which was yet another milestone for the wireless sector. Prepaid cards lured more subscribers into the industry besides lowering the credit risk of service providers due to its upfront payment concept. Prepaid cards were quite a phenomenon among first-time users who wanted to control their bills and students who had limited resources but greater need to be connected. Pre-paid cards greatly helped the cellular market to grow rapidly and cater to the untapped market. Further, the introduction of innovative schemes like recharge coupons of smaller denominations and life time incoming free cards has led to an exponential growth in the subscriber base. Introduction of Calling Party Pays (CPP) The CPP regime was introduced in India in 2003 and under this regime, the calling party who initiated the call was to bear the entire cost of the call. This regime came to be applicable for mobile to mobile calls as well as fixed line to mobile calls. So far India had followed the Receiving Party Pays (RPP) system where the subscriber used to pay for incoming calls from both mobile as well as fixedline networks. Shifting to the CPP system has greatly fuelled the subscriber growth in the sector. Changing Demographic Profile The changing demographic profile of India has also played an important role in subscriber growth. The changed profile is characterised by a large young population, a burgeoning middle class with growing disposable income, urbanisation, increasing literacy levels and higher adaptability to technology. These new features have multiplied the need to be connected always and to own a wireless phone and therefore, in present times mobiles are perceived as a utility rather than a luxury. Increased Competition ; Declining Tariffs Liberalisation of the telecom industry has fuelled intense competition, especially in the cellular segment. The ever-increasing competition has led to high growth of subscribers and has put pressure on tariffs, which have seen a sharp drop over the years. When the cellular phones were introduced, call rates were at a peak of Rs 16 per minute and there were charges for incoming calls too. Today, however, incoming calls are no longer charged and outgoing calls are charged at less than a rupee per minute. Thus, the tariff war has come a long way indeed. Increased competition and the subsequent tariff war have acted as a major catalyst for attracting more subscribers. Apart from these major growth drivers, an improved network coverage, entry of CDMA players, growth of value-added services (VAS), advancement in technology, and growing data services have also driven the growth of the industry. CONCLUSION The telecom industry in India has experienced exponential growth over the past few years and has been an important contributor to economic growth; however, the cut-throat competition and intense tariff wars have had a negative impact on the revenue of players. Despite the challenges, the Indian telecom industry will thrive because of the immense potential in terms of new users. India is one of the most-attractive telecom markets because it is still one of the lowest penetrated markets. The government is keen on developing rural telecom infrastructure and is also set to roll out next generation or 3G services in the country. Operators are on an expansion mode and are investing heavily on telecom infrastructure. Foreign telecom companies are acquiring considerable stakes in Indian companies. Burgeoning middle class and increasing spending power, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s thrust on increasing rural telecom coverage, favourable investment climate and positive reforms will ensure that IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s high potential is indeed realised. The government has eased the rules regarding inter circle and intra circle mergers. This has led to a slew of mergers and acquisitions in the recent past. Also as the sector is moving closer to maturity, further consolidation is a reality and this will lead to the survival of more profitable players in this segment. In order to further promote the use of Internet in the country the government is taking proactive steps to develop this sector with the help of the various players in this segment. For this purpose, the use of broadband technology is being mooted and this will go a long way in improving the productivity of the Indian economy as well as turn out to be the next big opportunity for telecom companies after the mobile communications segment. References www. indiatelecom. org www. trai. gov. in www. telecommindia. com www. telecomindiaonline. com/ www. dot. gov. in/
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Brenda Castro- Sanchez Biology 102 Professor Cynthia OÃ¢â¬â¢Rourke November 8th, 2015 The Tragic Impact: Breast Cancer Cancer is all around us, we might think we are healthy but in reality we might not be. Breast cancer is one of the most common type of cancer found in women today. The truth is, there are many types of breast cancers. Men can have breast cancer as well, breast cancer doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t only effect women. Breast cancer is when a cell divides uncontrollably and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t receive the signal to stop dividing (Types of Breast Cancer 2015). When the cancer is malignant it tends to spread throughout the body usually spread by the lymph system. The lymph system can spread the cancer through the bloodstream to other organs or parts of the bodyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the other hand, invasive ductal carcinoma also known by IDC is the same thing as DCIS, but the cancer is invasive. IDC is a cancer that spreads throughout tissues of the breast in addition if the lymphÃ¢â¬â¢s are infected with the cancer, it will spread to other organs. This is anothe r common type of cancer because Ã¢â¬Å"80% of all breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinomasÃ¢â¬ (IDC- Invasive Ductal Carcinoma 2015, 1). Which means that 180,000 plus women are getting diagnosed in the USA each year with this type of cancer (IDC- Invasive Ductal Carcinoma 2015). Inflammatory breast cancer in the other hand is very rare. About 1%- 3% have this type of breast cancer (Types of breast cancer 2015). This type of cancer is easy to detect the skin of the breast will end up looking bumpy and thick. The cause if the inflammation is due to the blockage of the lymph vessels by the cancerous cells (Types of breast cancer 2015). However, the cancer can be thought to be an infection before screened for breast cancer. Men Breast Cancer usually starts in the ducts just like women do, in addition, menÃ¢â¬â¢s lymph system hit by a cancerous cell can also transport the cancer through the blood stream to other parts of the body. However it is less common because men duct cell s are not as developed as females (What is breast cancer in men 2014). 1,500 cases are reported yearly in the United States (Giordano 2002). Considering the amount
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Thursday, April 23, 2020
According to Frye, these stories stop being ways to explain the world and become part of literature when they cease to be beliefs. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re really metaphors and part of the language of poetry. 2. Frye means by Ã¢â¬Å"every form of literature has a pedigreeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"literature can only derive itÃ¢â¬â¢s form from itself. Ã¢â¬ that every literary work comes from a related source or idea in literature. A writerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest to write can only have come from a previous experience of literature. 3. A convention is a certain typical and socially accepted way of writing. 4. Frye uses the idea of a newborn baby as a metaphor by saying that a new baby is a new individual but descended from the first humans, itÃ¢â¬â¢s parents. Literature is the same because even though there are new pieces of work, they all are recognizably the same kind of things as the old original piece of work. We will write a custom essay sample on Singing School Answers or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ex. Canadian literature and new baby analogy. 5. The four story types are tragedies, comedies, romance and satire. They are related to each other by playing hand in hand in focal points of themes in literary work. 6. The principle is to identify similarities between the human and natural world and balance both of them out. 7. Frye says that for a mediocre writer, conventions make them sound like a lot of other people. For the popular writer, it gives him a formula he can exploit and for the good writer, it releases his experiences or emotions from himself and incorporates them into literature. 8. Robert Graves feels that the story The White Goddess connects all literature. Frye does not agree and feels that the story fits inside a bigger and better known one. Frye thinks that the story of the loss and regaining of identity is the framework of all literature. 9. Allusion- An indirect reference. Allusions in The Singing School: 1. Gods and heroes from myths Singing School Answers free essay sample Frye uses the idea of a newborn baby as a metaphor by saying that a new baby is a new individual but descended from the first humans, itÃ¢â¬â¢s parents. Literature is the same because even though there are new pieces of work, they all are recognizably the same kind of things as the old original piece of work. Ex. Canadian literature and new baby analogy. 5. The four story types are tragedies, comedies, romance and satire. They are related to each other by playing hand in hand in focal points of themes in literary work. 6. The principle is to identify similarities between the human and natural world and balance both of them out. 7. Frye says that for a mediocre writer, conventions make them sound like a lot of other people. For the popular writer, it gives him a formula he can exploit and for the good writer, it releases his experiences or emotions from himself and incorporates them into literature. We will write a custom essay sample on Singing School Answers or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 8. Robert Graves feels that the story The White Goddess connects all literature. Frye does not agree and feels that the story fits inside a bigger and better known one. Frye thinks that the story of the loss and regaining of identity is the framework of all literature. 9. Allusion- An indirect reference. Allusions in The Singing School: 1. Gods and heroes from myths
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
The Different Cultural Viewpoints Introduction Culture is one of the major factors that dictate the way in which people act under given circumstances. Vance Paik (2006) define culture as Ã¢â¬Å"a system of values and norms that are shared among a group of people and that, taken together, constitute a design for living. The influence of culture on life is all encompassing and culture impacts on all relationships, be they personal or professional. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Why People May Not Appreciate the Cultural Point of View of Others? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This paper shall begin by stating and analyzing the reasons why people may not appreciate the cultural point of view of others. It shall then proceed to discuss how appreciating cultural diversity affects peoples ability to communicate effectively in the context of a multinational corporation. Reasons why People may not Appreciate Different Viewpoints One of the reasons why pe ople may not appreciate the cultural point of view of others is because of the differences in cultural values. This is contrary to the fact that for people to peacefully coexist with each other, they have to have a uniform sense of what is acceptable. This sense of shared moral and social valuesÃ¢â¬ according to which the members of the community are expected to behave is the defining characteristics of a community. Bridgeman, Lind and Keating (2008) state that this shared morals and values are learnt from the unique society in which one comes from. Another reason for lack of appreciation is because different cultures lay emphasis on different values. For example, in the Chinese culture, values such as modesty and cooperation are held in high esteem (Singelis Brown, 1995). The Western world on the other hand places greater value on individualism and personal ambition and success. A person brought up in a highly collectivist culture (such as the Chinese) will not relate with the person from the individualistic culture. There exists some competition between cultures and this may cause people not to appreciate the culture of others. This competition may lead people to see their own traditions and roots as being better than those of others. Kuran Sandholm (2008) rightfully reveal that in all interactions, individuals face tradeoffs and a person has to contend with competing needs. A person from one culture may therefore fail to appreciate the views of another person since they see their culture as the Ã¢â¬Å"right oneÃ¢â¬ . Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This rigid stance will result in a breakdown in communication relationships since effective communication demands that all parties to the communication effort appreciate each others views (Tourish Hargie, 2004). One can only overcome this by learning to adjust their behavior so to accommo date the cultural systems of others. Culture dictates the roles that different people have to play in the society. These roles may include into categories such as gender or even age. In Western cultures, gender does not play an important role in business relationship where equality is encouraged (Novinger, 2001). In this setting, the inputs of all members of the organization are equally appreciated. In contrast, paternalistic cultures which are highly masculine view women as being second to men. In such a setting, the opinion and view of females may be disregarded by the male. How Appreciating cultural Diversity Affects communication Effective communication is deemed as the corner stone on which any successful relationship, be it business or personal, is built (Adair, 2009). Intercultural interactions if not properly handled may result in a breakdown of communication. Multinational Corporations are one of the places where a lot of intercultural interactions have taken place. In thi s context, an appreciation of cultural diversity may aid in the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. This is because cultural diversity calls for the respecting and acknowledging of differences among people in relation to their age, sex, ethnicity, abilities and beliefs (Hankin, 2008). People from different cultures may develop different and unique interpretations to a similar message (Rosenbloom and Larsen, 2003). Without this understanding, a person may take it for granted that his/her message has been well received by others. This may result in miscommunication which may have huge negative repercussions for the organization. A person who appreciates cultural diversity will take into consideration the cultural context both when sending and receiving messages in the multicultural setting (Gudykunst Mody, 2002). The time consciousness of a person is influenced by their culture. Katsioloudes and Hadjidakis (2007) reveal that the sense of time differs by culture and w hile some cultures favor exactness, others are more relative. For the individual from the exact culture such as Germany, time is viewed as a tangible asset and timeliness and promptness is rewarded.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Why People May Not Appreciate the Cultural Point of View of Others? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In cultures such as the Latin American, time is stated in relative terms. Phrases such as some time in the future are therefore commonly used as opposed to giving exact times. A person who appreciates these cultural differences will avoid the conflict and frustration that may arise as a result of differing concepts of time among cultures. Conclusion This paper set out to analyze the reason why people may fail to appreciate the cultural view points of others as well as discuss how appreciating cultural diversity may result in effective communication in the context of a multinational corporat ion. From the analysis herein, it is clear that culture impacts on how we relate with other people. Culture may cause one to disregard the opinion and views of other people. Appreciating cultural diversity offsets the negative results of intercultural interactions. This results in effective communication which is necessary for the achievement of organizational goals. References Adair, J. (2009). Effective Communication: The Most Important Management Skill of All. New York: Pan Macmillan, 2009. Print. Bridgeman, J., Lind, C., Keating, M. (2008). Responsibility, Law and the Family. USA: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Hankin, H. (2005). The New Workforce: Five Sweeping Trends that will Shape your Companys Future. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn Gudykunst, WEB, Mody, B. (2002). Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication. Sage.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Katsioloudes, M.I., Hadjidakis, S. (2007). International Business: A Global Perspective. Butterworth-Heinemann. Kuran, T., Sandholm, W.H. (2008). Ã¢â¬Å"Cultural Integration and Its Discontents.Ã¢â¬ Review of Economic Studies, vol. 75, pp. 201 Ã¢â¬â 228. Novinger, T. (2001). Intercultural Communication: A Practical Guide. Texas: University of Texas Press. Rosenbloom, B., Larsen, T. (2003). Ã¢â¬Å"Communication in International Business-to-Business Marketing Channels does Culture Matter?Ã¢â¬ Industrial Marketing Management, 32 (2003) 309Ã¢â¬â 315 Singelis, T. M., Brown, W. J. (1995). Ã¢â¬Å"Culture, self, and collectivist communication: Linking culture to individual behaviorÃ¢â¬ . Human Communication Research, 21, 354-389 Tourish, D., Hargie, O. (2004). Key Issues in Organizational Communication. Routledge.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
The Power of Celebrating Victories - and What Youre Missing if You Dont How good are you at celebrating victories? Even little ones? Lex Ishimoto had every reason to believe, even assume, that he would be given a coveted ticket to the Ã¢â¬Å"So You Think You Can DanceÃ¢â¬ Academy. Lex is one of the most qualified candidates who has ever auditioned for this show. He has been dancing since the age of seven, competed in countless dance competitions, and trained extensively in hip hop, modern, and ballet. At age 15, he received a rare offer to train with the American Ballet Theater Ã¢â¬â and turned it down. He played Billy Elliot on Broadway, and performs with the famous Travis WallÃ¢â¬â¢s Shaping Sound Dance Company. Lex took a risk. He danced an improvisational routine rather than a choreographed one. He received a standing ovation from the judges and was given a ticket straight to the Academy. Unexpected Celebration! I honestly thought it would be reasonable for Lex not to be surprised or particularly excited about getting his ticket. Really, it was a foregone conclusion. And personally, when I am 99% sure I am going to reach a result, I often donÃ¢â¬â¢t exhibit a lot of emotion when I get it. I just donÃ¢â¬â¢t think itÃ¢â¬â¢s a big deal. But Lex looked almost like a little boy running out to the street with his ticket in hand, not quite knowing what to do with his excitement. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a video that includes his response to his victory. The quality is not great, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s the best I could find (please Google Lex Ishimoto YouTube if youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to view a better-quality video of the performance itself): I was struck by my own thoughts about celebration as I watched Lex do his little victory dance. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s some of what went through my head: IÃ¢â¬â¢m so glad he celebrated. I feel better because he celebrated! I bet people around me would feel better if I celebrated more. I can celebrate things even if they seem small to me. Guess I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to sit around waiting for big victories. Maybe Lex celebrated because he risked doing an improv routine. He challenged himself and it could have backfired, but instead it paid off. I often feel true excitement when I take a risk and it pays off (and sometimes even when it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t). I should write a blog about this. HmmmÃ¢â¬ ¦ I wonder what the research is on celebration? That last bullet prompted me to do some Googling. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s what I found about why itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to celebrate, even small victories Ã¢â¬â especially in the workplace. (See 7 Reasons It Always Pays to Celebrate Small Victories and HereÃ¢â¬â¢s why you should throw yourself a party the next time you reach a goal.) Some Benefits of Celebrating Victories: Positive reinforcement. People are motivated to perform better when they celebrate, and are celebrated for, their wins. Celebration creates future success. Fun. Celebrations make life Ã¢â¬â and work Ã¢â¬â fun! We work hard to achieve what we achieve, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to allow ourselves to be joyful for what weÃ¢â¬â¢ve done, rather than quickly move to the next thing. Marking progress. When you celebrate consistently, you create markers of where youÃ¢â¬â¢ve come from and where you are now. Keeping this perspective will motivate you to keep going, set even bigger goals, and clarify the direction you want to go. Confidence. Getting outside acknowledgment is one thing, but choosing to celebrate a victory for yourself is ultimately a more sustainable way to build confidence and joy. Yes, we get to create our own joy! ItÃ¢â¬â¢s infectious. Celebrating yourself can create joy and satisfaction in others, particularly the people who helped you reach your goal. It will encourage them to join you too! Plus, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll start celebrating others more when you intentionally give props to yourself. I realize there might be some naysayers out there who think reveling in your wins will make other people feel bad. I would suggest you stop worrying about them and surround yourself with people who will rejoice with you! Gratitude. Much has been written on the benefits on gratitude. Celebrating victories is a powerful way to give thanks for what you have accomplished. Remember, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to have big wins to find cause for celebration. Today I expressed joy when I received a meaningful compliment. IÃ¢â¬â¢m celebrating that a friend took me up on my offer to come over and use my WiFi when his was down. IÃ¢â¬â¢m celebrating that I went to the first meeting of an Entrepreneurs group at 6am this morning. And IÃ¢â¬â¢m celebrating that I made it through 10 rounds of a challenging circuit at the gym. In a moment, I will give myself some love for writing my blog on Thursday night, three days before I usually sit down to do it. There are so many things to inspire joy in life if you look for them. What can you take time to celebrate today?  Ã¢â¬Å"So You Think You Can DanceÃ¢â¬ is a dance competition and TV show where dancers with a range of experience compete, first to get into the Academy, then to the Top 20, and then to win the competition. Winners must not only become fluent in dance styles including ballet, modern, jazz, hip hop and Bollywood, but they must also exhibit a compelling range of emotion on the dance floor.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Modelling of optical parameters for optimum collection of concentrated solar radiation for photovoltaic devices - Dissertation Example Much has been utilized from our important ecosystems such as the forests, fisheries, wetland, fresh water resources, and that we have to move fast and change our course of actions to save the environment and the planet as a whole. The worldÃ¢â¬â¢s program of action has not improved these past decades because we still depend on fossil fuel; specifically eighty per cent of energy comes from fossil fuels. The threat posed by climate change and global warming is pushing mother Earth to its near end. Industrialisation, consumerism in America and globalisation, among other drivers of change, have pushed and motivated scientists to find ways to address environmental problems which have continued to plague humanity. Constructions of buildings, new inventions and new technologies, have become a race for supremacy among big international organisations. Environmental problems of the world today have been worsened by technology. But we can use technology to save the environment. Fossil fuels a nd coal can be depleted. There will come a time that weÃ¢â¬â¢ll lack resources for these forms of energy source. In other words, there must be a way to produce a substitute for fossil fuels and coal, something that is not harmful to the ozone layers and the environment as a whole. Solar energy and other forms of environmentally friendly energy using the wind, the tidal waves, hydro, and other similar forms, must be tapped. The DESERTEC website says that a few hours the earth receives power from the sun is equivalent to a year it can use for its requirements to run factories, industries, businesses, homes, and offices. The deserts of Africa and Arabia can absorb much heat from the sun using mirrors to heat water to produce steam and convert this into energy. With this technology, solar energy is convertible into High Voltage DC current; the technology uses AC current converted into Direct Current using gargantuan transformers and components that store electric currents like capacit ors. (Desertec Foundation, 2009) This paper aims to provide studies and research on solar radiation and how to Ã¢â¬ËcatchÃ¢â¬â¢ the rays of the sun to provide electricity. With this, we focus on what seems to be an emerging, but is quite becoming popular, technology Ã¢â¬â photovoltaic concentrator